广西快3

燃煤电厂湿法脱硫废水零排放处理工艺

发布时间:2019-01-03 11:26            

广西快3JIEHERANMEIDIANCHANGSHIFATUOLIUFEISHUIDELAIYUANHESHUIZHITEZHENG,JIESHAOLECHUANTONGTUOLIUFEISHUICHULIDEDIANXINGGONGYI,BINGDUIQIYOUQUEDIANJINXINGLEFENXI。ZAIQUANMIANFENXIHEZONGJIEYIYOUXIANGGUANWENXIANHEBAODAODEJICHUSHANG,ZHONGDIANJIESHAOLETUOLIUFEISHUILINGPAIFANGGONGYIDEFENLEI、YUANLIHEYOUQUEDIAN。ZHENDUIMUQIANLINGPAIFANGGONGYICUNZAIDEBUZU,TICHULEJUTIJIANYIHECUOSHI。

1 脱硫废水的来源及特点

广西快31.1 TUOLIUFEISHUIDELAIYUAN

CONGWOGUORANMEIDIANCHANGYUNXINGDESHIJIQINGKUANGLAIKAN,GUOLUSHIFATUOLIUCHANSHENGDETUOLIUFEISHUIZHUYAOYUANYUTUOLIUTAPAIFANGFEISHUI,QIFEISHUIPAIFANGLIANGYIBANTONGGUOTUOLIUTANEIKONGZHICl

-

在浆液中的浓度指标来确定 。采用FGD工艺脱除烟气中SO

2

的同时,HCl、HF 等存在于烟气中的酸性气体也会被脱硫剂吸收并转移至脱硫浆液中。

YOUYUTUOLIUJIANGYEXUNHUANSHIYONG,JISHIHCl、HFDENGSUANXINGQITIZAIYANQIZHONGDENONGDUBISO

2

低很多,但随着脱硫系统的运行,浆液中Cl

-

和F

-

会浓度逐渐升高。浆液中的铝与F

-

联合,对石灰石溶解具有屏蔽作用,降低脱硫效率;浆液中的 Ca

2+

与Cl

-

配成离子对CaCl

2

,影响吸收剂氢氧化钙的溶解,Cl

-

浓度升高也将导致脱硫效率的降低和石膏品质下降,同时对管道和系统

JUYOUYIDINGDEFUSHIXING。WEILEXITONGYUNXINGWENDING,BAOZHENGTUOLIUXIAOLVHESHIGAODECHANPINZHILIANG,YINCIXUPAICHUBUFENJIANGYE,YIBANKONGZHIJIANGYEZHONGCl

-

浓度小于20kg/m

3

1.2 TUOLIUFEISHUIDETEDIAN

SHIHUISHIPINZHI、TUOLIUXITONGDESHEJIYUYUNXING、TUOLIUTAQIANWURANWUKONGZHISHEBEI、RANMEIPINZHIDENGYINSUYINGXIANGTUOLIUFEISHUIDESHUIZHIJISHUILIANG。QIZHONG,SHIHUISHISHITUOLIUFEISHUIZHONGYIBUFENWURANWUDELAIYUAN,BAOKUOTUOLIUFEISHUIZHONGDENIEHEXINJINIANTUZAZHIZHONGSUOHANDEXIWEIKELI、LVHEGUIDENGWUZHI。TUOLIUXITONGDESHEJIYUYUNXINGYINGXIANGTUOLIUFEISHUISHUIZHIDEZHUYAOTIXIANZAITIANJIAJIDESHIYONG、YANGHUACHENGDUHUOYANGHUAFANGSHIYIJITUOLIUXITONGJIANSHECAILIAODENGFANGMIAN。

TUOLIUTAQIANWURANWUKONGZHISHEBEISHIZHICHUCHENHETUOXIAOSHEBEI。CHUCHENXIAOLVTISHENGKENENGJIANGDITUOLIUFEISHUIZONGXUANFUKELIWUNONGDU,DANXIWEIKELIDEFEIHUITONGYANGKENENGZENGJIAHUIFAXINGJINSHUZAITUOLIUFEISHUIZHONGDEHANLIANG;TUOXIAOSHEBEINENGZENGJIACr

3

+

转为毒性更大、溶解性更强Cr

6

+

的比例;从脱硝系统逃逸的氨将增加脱硫废水的氨氮浓度。

广西快3ERRANMEIPINZHIZESHIYINGXIANGTUOLIUFEISHUIDEZHUYAOYINSU,GAOLIUMEI、GAOLVMEIJUNHUIZENGJIATUOLIUFEISHUIDEPAIFANGLIANG。TUOLIUFEISHUIJUYOURUXIATEDIAN:

(1)SHUIZHIBUWENDING。SHOURANMEIPINZHI、SHIHUISHIPINZHIJITUOLIUXITONGDEYUNXINGDENGYINSUYINGXIANG,JISHIXIANGTONGTUOLIUSHEBEIZAIBUTONGSHIDUANSHUIZHIYEKENENGCUNZAIJIAODACHABIE。

(2)SHUIZHICHENGRUOSUANXING。pH ZHIYIBANZAI4-6.5。

(4)HANYANLIANGGAO。RONGJIEXINGZONGGUTI(TDS)YIBANZAI 25000~60000mg/L ZHIJIAN,HANLIANGZUIGAODEYIN、YANGLIZIFENBIESHICl

-

和 Mg

2+

 。其它阴阳离子包括 Ca

2+

SO

4

2-

、F

-

等离子。另外,还含有GB 8978-1996《污水综合排放标准》中规定的第一类污染物和第二类污染物 。

2 脱硫废水处理工艺

2.1 HUAXUECHENDIANGONGYI

广西快3MUQIAN,GUONEICHULITUOLIUFEISHUIYIBANCAIYONGCHANGGUIDEHUAXUECHENDIANJISHU,JI“ZHONGHE-CHENDIAN-XUNING”SANLIANXIANGJISHU,QIGONGYILIUCHENGWEI:TUOLIUFEISHUIJINGGUANLUYICIJINRUZHONGHEXIANG、CHENDIANXIANG、XUNINGXIANG,ZUIHOUJINGCHENGQINGCHICHENDIANBINGZAICHUSHUIXIANGZHONGDIAOJIE pH ZHIZHIZHONGXINGHOUPAICHU。

QIZHONG,ZAIZHONGHEXIANGNEITONGGUOJIARUSHAOJIANHUOSHIHUISHIDIAOZHENGpHZHIZAI9ZUOYOU,RONGYEZHONGDEFe

3+

、Zn

2+

、Cu

2+

等大部分重金属离子会形成难溶的氢氧化物沉淀从溶液中分离。沉淀箱主要作用是利用向其加入有机硫沉淀剂 TMT-15或 Na

2

S,将中和箱未去除的 Pb

2+

和Hg

2+

等不能以氢氧化物形式沉淀出来的重金属沉淀分离。

YOUYUJINRUFEISHUIXITONGDETUOLIUFEISHUIYIJINGGUOFEISHUIXUANLIUQIHESHIGAOXUANLIUQILIANGJINONGSUOFENLI,QISUOHANXUANFUWUKELIJIAOXIAO,CHENJIANGXINGNENGCHA,WEIGAISHANCHENJIANGNENGLI,XUXIANGXUNINGXIANGZHONGTOUJIAXUNINGJI(LIUSUANLVHUATIE FeClSO

4

)并在絮凝箱出口管路投加助凝剂(聚丙烯酰胺)。进入澄清池后,经混凝生成的活性絮体吸附水中析出的细小金属氧化物,实现水与悬浮固体分离。

ZUIHOUQINGSHUIJINRUCHUSHUIXIANG,TONGGUOJIARUYANSUANDIAOZHENGpHZHIHOUDABIAOPAIFANG。CHENGQINGCHIDIBUXIAOBUFENWUNIZUOWEIJIECHUWUNIFANHUIZHONGHEXIANGZHONG,DABUFENWUNIJIANGTONGGUOWUNIJILIAOBENGSONGZHIBANKUANGSHIYALVJITUOSHUICHENGNIBINGWAIYUN。

广西快3JINGSANLIANXIANGGONGYICHULIHOUDEFEISHUI,NENGGOUYOUXIAOQUCHUXUANFUWUZAZHIHEGEZHONGZHONGJINSHULIZI,DADAOWUSHUIZONGHEPAIFANGBIAOZHUN,DANGAICHULIGONGYIDUIGONGYIKONGZHIYAOQIUJIAOGAO,Cl

-

、SO

4

2-

的去除效果十分有限,影响处理后脱硫废水的回收利用 。

广西快32.2 MONONGSUOJIANLIANGJISHU

NONGSUOJIANLIANGJISHUDESILUSHIDUIJINGYUCHULIHOUDETUOLIUFEISHUICAIYONGMOUZHONGNONGSUOGONGYIJINXINGNONGSUO,JIANGDIFEISHUILIANG,JIANSHAOHOUXUZHENGFAGUHUACHULILIANG,CONGERJIANGDICHULICHENGBEN。QIZHONG,MOFANONGSUOJISHUZHUYAOBAOKUONALV(Nanofiltration,NF)、FANSHENTOU(Reverse Osmosis,RO)、ZHENGSHENTOU(Forward Osmosis,FO)HEDIANSHENXI(Electro Dialysis,ED)DENG。

广西快3(1)NF。NALVMOBUJINNENGGOUJIELIUXIAOFENZIYOUJIWU,DUIERJIAHUOGAOJIALIZITEBIESHIYINLIZIYOUJIAOGAODEJIELIULV,DANDUIYIJIALIZIJIELIULVXIAOYU90 %。

广西快3(2)RO。FANSHENTOUSHISHIJIADAYUZIRANSHENTOUYAYALIYUNONGRONGYESHANG,SHIRONGJICONGNONGRONGYEZHONGTOUGUOBANTOUMODADAOXIRONGYEZHONG。ANZHAOGONGYIBUTONGFANSHENTOUKEFENWEIDIEGUANSHIFANSHENTOU、GAOYAFANSHENTOUHETESHULIUDAOFANSHENTOU。FANSHENTOUJISHUANQUANKEKAO、CHUSHUIWENDING,CHUYANLVGAO,QIENENGHAODI,BUZUSHIRONGYIWURANHEJIEGOU。

广西快3(3)FO。ZHENGSHENTOUSHIYIKAOTIQUYECHANSHENGDEJUDASHENTOUYAQUDONGLI,SHIGAOYANSHUICEDESHUIFENZIZIFABINGYOUXUANZEXINGDEKUOSANJINRUTIQUYECE。TIQUYESHIANYUERYANGHUATANANTEDINGWUZHIDELIANGBIRONGYUSHUIZHONGXINGCHENGDETANSUANANRONGYE。ZHENGSHENTOUHAONENGDI,CHUSHUISHUIZHIGAO,WUGOUQING,DANCUNZAITIQUYEZAISHENGFUZA,XITONGFUZA,TOUZICHENGBENGAO。

(4)ED。DIANSHENXIGONGZUOYUANLISHIYUANSHUITONGGUOJIETONGZHILIUDIANDEYANG、YINLIZIMOJIAOTIPAILIEZAIYIN、YANGJIZHIJIANDEGESHISHI,ZAIDIANCHANGLIZUOYONGXIADAIDIANLIZIDINGXIANGQIANYI,YOUYUYANG、YINLIZIJIAOHUANMODEXUANZETOUGUOXING,YIBUFENSHUIBEINONGSUO,YIBUFENSHUIBEIDANHUA,XINGCHENGJIAOTIPAILIEDENONGSHIYUDANSHI,CONGERFENLIYUTICHUNFEISHUI。

广西快3DIANSHENXINENGHAODI,HUANJINGWURANXIAO,SHAOYAOLIANGDENGYOUDIAN,DANDUIGAIMEIGOUNAISHOUNENGLIJIAODI,DUINANLIJIEDEWUZHINANYIQUCHU。 [9-12] 。

2.3 ZHENGFAGUHUAJISHU

ZHENGFAGUHUADANYUANSHISHIXIANTUOLIUFEISHUILINGPAIFANGDEGUANJIANDANYUAN,TASHILIYONGREYUANDUITUOLIUFEISHUIJINXINGZHENGFA,QIZHONGZHENGFALENGNINGHOUDEYETIJINXINGHUIYONG,BINGZIYUANHUALIYONGJIEJINGCHULAIDEGUHANWU。ZHUYAOJISHUBAOKUOZHENGQIZHENGFAJIEJINGJISHUHEYANQIZHENGFAJIEJINGJISHU。ZHENGQIZHENGFAJIEJINGJISHUBAOKUODUOXIAOZHENGFAJIEJING(Multiple Effect Distillation , MED)HEJIXIEYASUOZHENGFAJIEJING(Mechanical Vapor Re-compression,MVR);YANQIZHENGFAJIEJINGZHUYAOBAOKUODIWENYANQIZHIJIEZHENGFAJIEJINGHEGAOWENYANQIPANGLUZHENGFAJIEJING [13] 。

广西快32.3.1 ZHENGQIZHENGFAJIEJINGJISHU

(1)MED JISHU

MED SHIYIZHONGJIYUDANXIAOZHENGFAJICHUSHANGFAZHANQILAIDEZHENGFAJISHU,GAIJISHUJIANGDIYUNXINGCHENGBENSHITONGGUODUOCIZHONGFULIYONGZHENGQIDERENENGYIJIANSHAOXIAOHAORENENGSHIXIANDE。MED XITONGYIBANBAOHANDUOGEZHENGFAQI(JIDUOXIAO),ZAIZHENGFAQIZHONGJINRUDEFEISHUIHEXINXIANZHENGQIFASHENGHUANREWEIDIYIXIAO,CHANSHENGERCIZHENGQIHENONGSUOYEJUNJINRUDIERXIAOZHENGFAQIZHONGJIXUZHENGFAHUANRE。

JIHOUYIXIAODEZHENGFAREYUANLAIZIQIANYIXIAOCHANSHENGDEERCIZHENGQI,TONGSHIQIANYIXIAOCHANSHENGDENONGSUOYEJIANGZAIHOUYIXIAOZHONGJIXUNONGSUO。WEIBAOZHENGMEIYIXIAODECHUANREDONGLI,SHIXIANXIAOYUXIAOZHIJIANDUOCIRENENGLIYONG,GEXIAODECAOZUOYALIXUZHUJIJIANGDI,YISHIGEXIAODEERCIZHENGQIYAQIANGYUZHENGQIFEIDIANYICIJIANGDI。

ZUIZHONG,ZAIGEXIAOJIAREZHENGQIDEZUOYONGXIAGAOYANFEISHUIZHUJIANZHENGFANONGSUO,JINRUJIEJINGQICHANSHENGJINGTIYAN,BINGTONGGUOFENLIQISHIXIANGUYEFENLI。YOUYUJIAREZHENGQIDEWENDUZHUXIAOJIANGDI,SIXIAOYIHOUZHENGFAXIAOGUOJIAOCHA,SUOYIYIBANDUOXIAOZHENGFAQIZHIZUODAOSIXIAO [14] 。

(2)MVR JISHU

广西快3MVR JISHUSHIJIANGFEISHUIHEZHENGQISONGRUJIAREQIJINXINGHUANRE,FEISHUIQIHUACHANSHENGERCIZHENGQI。JINGQIYEFENLIHOUDEERCIZHENGQISONGRUYASUOJINEIBEIYASUOZUOGONGTIGAOREHAN,HOUYOUFANHUIZHIJIAREQIZHONGJIAREFEISHUI,QICHANSHENGDEERCIZHENGQIJIANGZAICIJINRUYASUOJI,YICILEITUIXUNHUANSHIYONG。

FEISHUIZESUIZHENONGDUDEBUDUANTIGAODADAOGUOBAOHEZHUANGTAIZHIZHIYANFENXICHU,ZUIZHONGYANHESHUITONGGUOGUYEFENLIHOUFENBIEJINXINGHUISHOULIYONG。MVR GONGYIZHENGFAFEISHUISUOXURENENGDEZHUYAOLAIYUANYUZHENGQILENGNINGSHIFANGDERENENG,ZAISHOUCIQIDONGSHIXUYAOWAIYUANZHENGQI。

广西快3ZHENGCHANGYUNZHUANHOUJINXIAOHAOKONGZHIXITONG、ZHENGQIYASUOJIHEQUDONGZHENGFAQINEIZHENGQI、FEISHUI、LENGNINGSHUILIUDONGHEXUNHUANSHUIBENGSUOXUDEDIANNENG。GAIGONGYINENGGOUSHIXIANTUOLIUFEISHUIDELINGPAIFANG,DANBUZUSHIXITONGFUZA,TOUZIHEYUNXINGCHENGBENGAO,DUIJINSHUISHUIZHIYAOQIUJIAOGAODENG[15] 。

2.3.2 YANQIZHENGFAJIEJINGJISHU

广西快3YANDAOZHENGFAGONGYISHILIYONGPAIYANYUREJIANGWUHUAPENSHEYUGUOLUWEIBUYANDAODEJINGYUCHULIHOUDETUOLIUFEISHUIKUAISUZHENGFA,CHANSHENGDEYANFENJIEJINGDENGZAZHITONGYANQIYIQIJINRUCHUCHENQIHOUBEIBUHUOBINGSUIMEIHUIWAIPAI,ZHENGQIJINRUXISHOUTAXUNHUANLIYONG。GENJUSUOXUANQUDEZHENGFAYANDAOWEIZHI,YANDAOZHENGFAGONGYIKEFENWEIDIWENYANDAOZHENGFAJISHUHEGAOWENYANDAOPANGLUZHENGFAJISHU。

(1)DIWENYANDAOZHENGFAJISHU

CAIYONGDIWENYANDAOZHENGFAGONGYISHI,TUOLIUFEISHUIPENRUYANDAOWEIZHIYIBANZAIKONGYUQIHOUZHICHUCHENQIZHIQIANJIANDEYANDAOZHONG。GAIGONGYISHIDEDIANCHANGWAIPAIYANQIDEYURERENENGBEICHONGFENLIYONG,BINGNENGGOUDADAOTUOLIUFEISHUILINGPAIFANGDEMUDE,JUYOUXITONGJIANDAN、ZHANDIMIANJISHAO、SHEBEITOUZISHAO、FEISHUICHULILIUCHENGDUAN、YAOPINTIANJIASHAO、YUNXINGCHENGBENDIDENGYOUDIAN。

QUEDIANSHIGAIDUANYANDAOZHONGYANQIWENDUJIAODI,XUKONGZHIYANQIPAIYANWENDUZAILUDIANWENDUYISHANG,FUHEJIZUFUHEDIHUOBODONGJIAODASHIFEISHUIZHENGFAXIAOGUOCHA,CANYUFEISHUIHUISUIYANDAOJINRUCHUCHENQI,SHIYANDAOFUSHI、JIHUI、DUSAI。YINCI,GAIJISHUYIBANZAIJIUJIZUGAIZAOZHONGYOUJIAODUOYINGYONG,DUIXINJIANCHAOJIEJINGPAIFANGYAOQIUDEJIZUYINGYONGJIAOSHAO,DUIZHANGQIDIFUHEYUNXINGJIZUJUYOUYIDINGDEANQUANYINHUAN。

(2)PANGLUYANQIYUREZHENGFAJIEJINGJISHU

PANGLUYANQIYUREZHENGFAJIEJINGJISHUSHIZAIXITONGZHONGSHEZHIYUKONGYUQIBINGLIANDEYANDAOPANGLU,BINGCONGKONGQIYUREQIQIANDUANYINRUGAOWENZHENGQIZUOWEIFEISHUIZHENGFADEREYUAN,YIXUNSUZHENGFAWUHUAHOUDETUOLIUFEISHUI,CHANSHENGDEJINGTIHEGUTIZAZHISUIPANGLUYANQIJINRUKONGYUQIZHIHOUDEZHUYANDAOTONGFENMEIHUIYIQIBEIBUZHUOQUCHU。

广西快3GAIGONGYICAIYONGDULIYUNXINGJIZHI,NENGJINXINGDULIWEIHUHEJIANXIU,BINGNENGGOUSHIXIANTUOLIUFEISHUIDELINGPAIFANG,DUIDIYANWEN、DIFUHE、HUOCAIYONGDIDIWENSHENGMEIQIGONGYIDEJIZUSHIYONG。DANCAIYONGGAIGONGYIHUISHILUTANGJINFENGWENDUZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGJIANGDI,GUOLUXIAOLVJIANGDI,CONGERZENGDAJIZUMEIHAO。

3 结论

广西快3ZONGSHANGSUOSHU,SUIGUOJIAHUANBAOBIAOZHUNDERIYIYANGE,RANMEIDIANCHANGTUOLIUFEISHUILINGPAIFANGJIANGCHENGWEIQUSHI。GENJUTUOLIUFEISHUITEDIANJIGETUOLIUFEISHUICHULIGONGYIDEYOUDIANYUBUZU,XUHELIXUANZEYUCHULI、HUAXUECHENDIAN、NONGSUOJIANLIANG、ZHENGFAGUHUA、YANQIZHENGFAJIEJINGDENGGONGYIYOUHUACHULILUXIAN,YIDADAOZUIYOUCHULICHENGBENHEXIAOGUO。TUOLIUFEISHUIDEYUCHULISHIHOUXUCHULIGONGYIKEKAOJINGJIYUNXINGDEJICHU,YAOSHIXIANTUOLIUFEISHUILINGPAIFANG,XUZUOHAORUXIAGONGZUO:

(1)HUAXUECHENDIANGONGYINENGGOUHENHAODEQUCHUDADUOSHUZHONGJINSHUHEXUANFUWU,GEXIANGZHIBIAONENGGOUMANZUWUSHUIZONGHEPAIFANGBIAOZHUN。WEIYINGDUIGUTIXUANFUWU(SS)HEHUAXUEXUYANGLIANG(COD)WANGWANGBUNENGWENDINGDABIAOPAIFANG,XUDUIJIAYAOLIANG、JIAYAOFANGSHI、SHEBEIYUNXINGGUANLIJINXINGJINGZHUNHUAKONGZHI,TISHENGFEISHUICHULIXIAOGUO。

(2)ZHENGFAJIEJINGGONGYINENGHAOGAO、SHEBEIYIJIEGOU、TOUZIHEYUNXINGCHENGBENJIAOGAO,KETONGGUOYUCHULIGONGYIZHONGDERUANHUACHULIJIANGDI Ca

2+

、Mg

2+

含量,防止蒸发器结垢,并通过如反渗透等膜浓缩减量工艺处理对脱硫废水进行浓缩,以降低蒸发结晶工艺的处理成本。

(3)YANDAOZHENGFAGONGYIXITONGJIANDAN、TOUZIHEYUNXINGCHENGBENJIAODI,ZAIYINGYONGZHONGYINGGENJUJIZUSHIJIQINGKUANGXUANZEHELIDEYANDAOZHENGFAGONGYI,YIJIANGDIYUNXINGFENGXIANHEYUNXINGCHENGBEN。HAIXUJIAQIANGDUITUOLIUFEISHUIYUCHULIGONGYIDEGUANKONGHEYOUHUA,BI

MIANWUHUAPENSHEXITONGDUSAI。

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