广西快3

汽轮机运行启动与停运讲解

发布时间:2019-03-21 10:53            

广西快3①QIDONG:QILUNJICONGJINGZHIZHUANGTAIDAOGONGZUOZHUANGTAIDEGUOCHENG。QIDONGQIANDEZHUNBEI→CHONGZHUAN→SHENGSU→BINGWANG→DAIFUHE

广西快3②TINGJI:QILUNJICONGGONGZUOZHUANGTAIDAOJINGZHI(HUODAIPANCHE)ZHUANGTAI。JIANFUHE→JIELIE→ZHUANZIDUOZOU →TOUPANCHE

③QIDONGSHIJIAREGUOCHENG,ERTINGJIZESHIJIANGWENGUOCHENG。DUIQILUNJIERYAN,YICIQITING(FUHEBIANHUA)JINGLIYICIYINGLIJIAOBIAN,ZAOCHENGDIZHOUPILAOSUNSHANG,ZUIHOUDAOZHILIEWEN。

汽轮机的启动

一、启动方式的分类

1. 按新汽参数分:额定参数启动、滑参数启动

1) 滑参数启动的优点:

广西快3①XIANGDUIYUEDINGCANSHUQIDONG,HUACANSHUQIDONGDEJINQICANSHUDI、LIULIANGDA,DUIQILUNJIJIAREJUNYUN,JIANXIAOREYINGLI、ZHANGCHA;

②JINQICANSHUDI,KEJIANSHAOQIDONGQISHUISUNSHI,SUODUANQIDONGSHIJIAN,TIGAOQIDONGJINGJIXING;

③LIULIANGDA,FANGZHIMOJICHAOWEN。

2)滑参数启动分两种:

①YALIFAQIDONG

CHONGZHUANQIANZHUQIMENQIANZHENGQIYOUYIDINGYALIHEWENDU,SHENGSUGUOCHENGZHUJIANKAIDADIAOMEN,LIYONGDIAOMENKONGZHIZHUANSU,ZHIDAOEDINGZHUANSUDIAOMENQUANKAI

②ZHENKONGFAQIDONG

GUOLUDIANHUOQIAN,CONGGUOLUDAODIAOJIEJIQIANSUOYOUFAMENDAKAI,TOURUCHOUQISHEBEISHILU,JIDOUCHUYUZHENKONGZHUANGTAI,SHENGSUDAIFUHEQUANBUYOUGUOLUKONGZHI。

2. 按冲转方式分:高压缸启动、中压缸启动、高中压缸联合启动

1)中压缸启动

①QIDONGSHIZHENGQIBUJINGGUOGAOYAGANG,ZHIJIECONGZHONGYAGANGJINQICHONGZHUAN。WEIWEICHIGAOYAGANGWENDUSHUIPING,KECAIYONGTONGFENGFAHUODAONUANDEFANGSHI。DANGZHUANSUSHENGDAOYIDINGZHUANSUHUOBINGWANGDAIYIDINGFUHE(RU 5% FUHE)HOUZAIQIEHUANDAOGAOYAGANGJINQI。ANQUANXINGJIAOGAO,DANQIDONGSHIJIANYANZHANG。

②JINQISHIJINGGUOREQI、ZAIREQILIANGCIJIARE,SUODUANLEJIAREDAOYUDINGCANSHUDESHIJIAN,QIGANGJIAREJUNYUN,CAIYONGZHONGYAGANGJINQIFANGFA,TONGYANGCHONGZHUANGONGLVXIAHANJIANGXIAO、LIULIANGDA;

③GAOYAZHUANZITONGSHIBEIJIARE。

2)高中压缸联合启动

①DAIPANGLU;

②LENGTAIHUORETAI;

③QIDONGSHI,GAOZHONGYAGANGTONGSHIJINQICHONGDONGZHUANZI,DUIHEGANGJIZUYOUHAOCHU,JIANSHAOREYINGLI,SUODUANQIDONGSHIJIAN。

3. 按启动前汽轮机金属温度分:

冷态启动(150~180

TINGJISHIJIANDAYU 72 XIAOSHI (QIGANGJINSHUWENDUYUEDIYUGAICEDIANMANFUHEWENDUDE 40%)

温态启动(180~350

广西快3TINGJI 10~56 XIAOSHI(QIGANGJINSHUWENDUYUEZAIGAICEDIANMANFUHEWENDUDE 40%~80%)

热态启动(> 350

TINGJIXIAOYU 10 XIAOSHI(QIGANGJINSHUWENDUYUEGAOYUGAICEDIANMANFUHEWENDUDE 80%)

极热态启动:停机小于 1 小时

4. 按照汽轮机转子温度是否在低温脆性转变温度以上划分:

广西快3DIWENCUIXINGZHUANBIANWENDU(FATT):ZHUANZICAILIAOZAIGAIWENDUYIXIATIXIANCHULENGCUIXING,RONGYICHANSHENGLIEWEN。

5. 按控制进汽的阀门分:

1) 调节汽门启动

DIANDONGZHUZHAMENHEZIDONGZHUQIMENQUANKAI,JINRUQILUNJIDEZHENGQIYOUDIAOJIEQIMENKONGZHI。

2) 自动主汽门和电动主闸门(或旁路门)启动

DIAOJIEQIMENQUANKAI,JINRUQILUNJIDEZHENGQIYOUZIDONGZHUQIMENHEDIANDONGZHUZHAMEN(HUOPANGLUMEN)KONGZHI。

二、冷态启动 

1. 冷态滑参数启动的主要步骤

①QIDONGQIANDEZHUNBEIGONGZUO

②CHOUZHENKONG

③NUANGUAN

④CHONGZHUAN、SHENGSUHEDINGSUNUANJI

⑤BINGLIEJIEDAICHUSHIFUHE

⑥JIAFUHEZHIEDINGZHI

2. 冲转前操作程序

配汽包炉的机组:

广西快3YOUXUNHUAN~FADIANJISHUILENGXITONGTOUYONG~QIDONGPANCHE~ZHOULENGXITONGTOUYONGJIXUNHUANSHUIMUGUANCHONGYA~DIYAQINGXIJININGJIESHUIXUNHUAN~CHUYANGQIJIARE~GUOLUSHANGSHUI~NINGQIQICHOUZHENKONG~ZHOUFENGSONGQI~GUOLUDIANHUOHOUQIJIJINQIGUANNUANGUAN。

配直流炉的机组:

广西快3YOUXUNHUAN~FADIANJISHUILENGXITONGTOUYONG~QIDONGPANCHE~ZHOULENGXITONGTOUYONGJIXUNHUANSHUIMUGUANCHONGYA~DIYAQINGXIJININGJIESHUIXUNHUAN~GAOYAQINGXI、JISHUIXUNHUANYICHUYANGQIJIARE~NINGQIQICHOUZHENKONG~GUOLUDIANHUOHOUQIJIJINQIGUANNUANGUAN~ZHOUFENGSONGQI。

广西快3ZHOULENGXITONGTOUYONGJIXUNHUANSHUIMUGUANCHONGYAYOUSHIFANGZAIZUIQIANMIANJINXING。

YOUYUMEITAIJIZUDEXINGSHIBUTONG,SUOYILENGTAICHONGZHUANQIANDECAOZUONEIRONGHUIYOUQUBIE,ERQIECAOZUOSHUNXUYEHUIYOUXIEBUTONG,DANDABUFENCAOZUONEIRONGHECHENGXUDOUSHIXIANGTONGDE。

1)启动前的准备工作

SHUSHUIMENQUANKAI,YOUBENGSHIZHUANGONGYOUZHENGCHANG,PANCHEMADASHIYUNZHUANZHENGCHANG。

广西快3YOUBENG、JISHUIBENG、NINGJIESHUIBENGLIANDONGSHIYAN。

ZHENKONGXITONG、XUNHUANSHUIXITONGJIANCHA。

广西快3ZHONGYAOBIAOJIZHENGCHANG:ZHUANSU、HUANGDONG、QIGANGJINSHUWENDU、SHUIWEIJIDENG。

广西快3CHUYANGQISHUIWEI 2/3,NINGJIEQISHUIWEI 3/4,YOUXIANGYOUWEI 2/3。

油循环:

①MUDE:JIANCHAYOUXITONGWANHAOCHENGDU,JINYIBUJINGHUAYOUXITONG,TIGAOTOUPINGYOUYOUZHI,DIAOJIEYOUWEN,WEICHILENGYOUQICHUKOU,ZHOUCHENGRUKOU 35-45℃(YOUWENGUOGAO,ZHANDUDI,YOUMOBO, ZHOUCHENGYIGANMO,YOUYILAOHUA, YOUWENGUODI,ZHANDUDA,YOUMOHOU,WENDINGXINGCHA,YOUMOZHENDANGYINFAZHENDONGZENGDA) 。

广西快3②ZHUYAOCAOZUO:TOUQIDONGYOUBENG,KAILENGYOUQIYOUCEJIN、CHUKOUMEN,SHUICEJINKOUMENKAI、CHUKOUMENGUANZHUYIYOUXIANGYOUWEIBIANHUA。

2) 启动盘车

广西快3QILUNJIQIDONGQIANBIXUXIANTOUPANCHE,YUANYIN:

①QIDONGPANCHEHOUKEXIANDUIJIZUJINXINGJIANCHA;

广西快3②QIJICHONGZHUANQIANHUIYOUBUFENZHENGQIJINRUJINEI,RUOZHUANZIJINGZHI,HUICHANSHENGREWANQU。

3)低压清洗和凝结水循环

广西快3NINGJIESHUIYIJICHUYANGQIXITONGDECHONGXI——DIYAQINGXI

JISHUIXITONGDECHONGXI——GAOYAQINGXI

广西快3DIYAQINGXIHENINGJIESHUIXUNHUANDEMUDE:QINGXININGQIQI、ZHOUFENGJIAREQI、DIYAJIAREQI、CHUYANGQIJIQIGUANXI,BINGSHIXITONGNEISHUIZHIDADAOYAOQIU。

JIANCHASHEBEIXITONGGONGZUOQINGKUANGSHIFOUZHENGCHANG,BINGJIANLININGJIESHUIXITONGXUNHUAN,YIBIANQIDONGJISHUIXUNHUAN。

4) 除氧器加热

QIBAOLUJINSHUIQIANJIZHILIULUDIANHUOQIANYINGDUICHUYANGQIDESHUIJINXINGJIARE,JIANGQIJIAREDAOWEIZHENGYAXIADEBAOHEWENDU,JINXINGRELICHUYANG(CHUQI),YIBAOZHENGGUOLUDIANHUOSHILUNEIJISHUISHUIZHIHEGE,FANGZHIGUOLUFUSHI。

注意事项:

①CHUYANGQIJIAREDETIAOJIAN:NINGJIESHUIXITONGQINGXIJIESHU;CHUYANGQIXITONGYIANJIAREQIANYAOQIUJIANCHAGUO,FAMENWEIZHIYIANGUIDINGSHEZHIWANBI;CHUYANGQIQIYALIANSUOJIGAOSHUIWEI、DISHUIWEIBAOHUYIXIAOYANZHENGCHANG,YICHUZAIZHUNBEICHONGSHUIJIAREDEZHUANGTAI;CHUYANGQISHUIWEIYIYOUNINGJIESHUIBUSHUIBENGJIAZHIGUIDINGZHI;CHUYANGQIBEIYONGQIYUANZHENGCHANG,BEIYONGQIGUANDAOYIJINGCHONGFENNUANGUAN。 

②CHUYANGQIJINQIQIANXUQIDONGCHUYANGXUNHUANBENG,BINGQUEBAOCHUYANGXUNHUANBENGYUNZHUANZHENGCHANG。 

广西快3③CHUYANGQIJINQIJIARESHI,YINGWEICHIZHENGCHANGSHUIWEI。

④JISHUIXIANGCHUSHUIHANYANGLIANGYINGHEGE。 

5) 高压清洗和大循环

JIZUQIDONGSHI,GAOYAQINGXIZHIGAOYAJISHUIGUANDAOCHONGXIHEGUOLULENGTAISHUICHONGXI;DAXUNHUANJIZHIGUOLUDIANHUOQIANJISHUIDEZHENGCHANGXUNHUAN。DUIQIBAOLULAISHUOMEIYOUDAXUNHUAN,ZHIYOUXIANGGUOLUSHANGSHUI。 

PEIZHILIULUJIZUDEGAOYAQINGXIHEDAXUNHUANPEIZHILIULUDEJIZU,GUOLUDEJINSHUI、DIWENCHONGXIDOUYONGJISHUIBENGJINXING。

6) 抽真空,投入轴封系统

广西快3MUDE:CHUANGZAONUANGUAN、CHONGZHUANTIAOJIAN

广西快3CAOZUOSHUNXU:TOUXUNHUANSHUI→TOUNINGJIESHUI→TOUPANCHE→TOUCHOUQIQI→TOUQIFENG  (FANGZHIZHOUCHENGYOUZHONGDAISHUI)

ZHOUFENGGONGQIGUOREDUDAYU 14 DU。GONGQIYALIYONGQIDONGQUXIANTUIJIANZHI。

ZAICHUYANGQIJIARENINGJIESHUIHOUJINXING,YINWEIZHEISHIYIKENENGHUIYOURESHUIJINRUNINGQIQI,DAIDAOGUOLUDIANHUOQIJIJINQIGUANNUANGUANSHI,GENGHUIYOUDALIANGDEZHENGQIJINRUNINGQIQI。RUGUONINGQIQINEIMEIYOUJIANLIYIDINGDEZHENKONG,QISHUIJINRUNINGQIQI,HUISHININGQIQINEIXINGCHENGZHENGYA,SUNHUAIPAIQIGANGANQUANMENDENGSHEBEI。

广西快3NINGQISHEBEIJIANLIZHENKONGGENGSHIQILUNJICHONGZHUANBIBUKESHAODETIAOJIAN!

注意事项:

广西快3①BIXUZAIPANCHEZHUANGTAIXIA,CAINENGTOURUZHOUFENGGONGQI。

②ZHOUFENGSONGQISHIJIANJINKENENGDUAN

广西快3③JIANGZHENKONGWEICHIDAOCHONGZHUANYAOQIUDESHUZHI。

特别注意: 

①LENGTAIQIDONG,YINGGAIXIANTOURUCHOUQISHEBEIHEZHOUFENGJIAREQI,HOUTOURUZHOUFENGGONGQI。

②RETAIQIDONG,YINGGAIXIANTOURUZHOUFENGGONGQI,HOUTOURUCHOUQISHEBEIHEZHOUFENGJIAREQI。

7)暖管

广西快3①NUANGUANNEIRONG:ZHU、ZAIREZHENGQIGUANDAO,FUZHUYONGQIGUANDAO。

广西快3②NUANGUANWENSHENGSUDU:BUDAYU 3~5℃/min。

③NUANGUANSHIJIAN:10-15min。

广西快3④NUANGUANMUDE:FANGZHIZHENGQIDAISHUIJINRUQILUNJI;JIANXIAOGUANDAOREYINGLI。 

注意事项:

①SHUSHUIJISHIPAIFANG。

广西快3②NUANGUANQIAN,TOUXUNHUANSHUI(YINNUANGUANSHUSHUIPAIZHININGQIQI),TOUNINGJIESHUIXITONG,TOUCHOUQIQI。

广西快3③NUANGUANJIPANGLUTOUYUNHOU,KONGZHIPAIQISHIWENDUZAI 80℃YINEI。

PANGLUXITONGTOURUSHIYONGHOU,PAIQISHIWENDUHUIZHUJIANSHENGGAO,CISHIYAOKONGZHIDIYAPANGLUPAIRUNINGQIQIZHENGQIDEWENDU,BINGKONGZHIPAIQISHIWENDU,YIMIANDUIDIYAGANGPENGZHANGCHAZAOCHENGGUODAYINGXIANG。

DAKAISHUSHUIMEN,BAOZHENGSHUSHUIJISHIPAICHUTONGSHISHIGUANNEIZHENGQILIUDONG,CAINENGSHUNLIYUREGUANDAO,BINGSHIZHENGQIBENSHENDEWENDUZHUJIANTIGAOZHINENGMANZUCHONGZHUANDEYAOQIU。

3. 冲转参数选择

CHUANREFANGSHI: NINGJIEFANGRE—DUILIUFANGRE—DAORE

广西快3QIDONGCANSHUDEXUANZE,ZHUYAOSHIKAOLVJINSHUBUJIANDEREYINGLI,ERREYINGLIDEDAXIAOZHUYAOSHIQUJUEYUZHENGQIYUJINSHUBUJIANZHIJIANDEWENCHAHEFANGREXISHU。

压力过低,加热效果差,暖机时间长;过高,热冲击大,且流量过小,暖机时间延长,开机时间延长。

GAOYAGUOREZHENGQI    DIYAWEIGUOREZHENGQI    SHIZHENGQI

DIYAGUOREZHENGQIDEFANGREXISHUJIAOXIAO(α =58.15~174.45 W/(m2· K)),XIANGDANGYUEDINGCANSHUSHI

DE 1/10。

广西快3JINQIWENDUYAOQIUZHENGQIZHISHAOYOU 50℃DEGUOREDU。

SHIYIDEQIDONGZHENGQIWENDUDUIQILUNJIDEQIDONGJUYOUJUEDINGDEYIYI。

ZAIREZHENGQIWANGWANGNANYUTONGSHIDADAOYAOQIUGUOREDUYAOQIU。CHANGYANCHICHONGZHUANSHIJIAN,CONGERYANZHANGLEZHENGGEJIZUDEQIDONGSHIJIAN。

WEILEJIANXIAOZHEIZHONGMAODUN,CHANGCAIYONGJINLIANGKAIZUZAIREZHENGQIGUANSHUSHUIFAMENYIZENGJIASHUSHUILIANGDEBANFA。YOUQIJIPANGLUDEJIZU,HAICAIYONGZAINUANGUANSHIYOUYIGUANXIAOQIJIDIYAPANGLUFA,CONGERTIGAOZAIREZHENGQIYALIYIZENGJIASHUSHUILIANG,DADAOTIGAOZHONGYAZHUQIMENQIANZAIREQISHENGWENSUDU,GANSHANGZHUZHENGQISHENGWENSUDUDEMUDE。

为什么凝汽式汽轮机启动时要建立必要的真空?

①KESHIQIGANGNEIQITIMIDUJIANXIAO,ZHUANZIZHUANDONGSHIYUQITIMOCAGUFENGSUNSHIYEJIANXIAO;

广西快3②QIGANGNEIBAOCHIYIDINGDEZHENKONG,KEZENGDAJINQIZUOGONGDENENGLI,JIANSHAOQIHAOLIANG,BINGSHIDIYAGANGPAIQIWENDUJIANGDI。

RUOQIDONGSHIZHENKONGTAIDI,CHONGZHUANSHIKENENGSHININGQIQINEICHANSHENGZHENGYA,YINQIDAQIANQUANMENDONGZUOHUOPAIQISHIWENDUGUOGAO,SHININGQIQITONGGUANJIJUPENGZHANG,ZAOCHENGZHANGKOUSONGCHI,DAOZHININGQIQILOUSHUI。

ZHENKONGYEBUXUYAOTAIGAO,GUOGAO,CHOUZHENKONGSHIJIANYANZHANG,LIULIANGGUOXIAO,NUANJISHIJIANYANZHANG,KAIJISHIJIANYANZHANG。

ZHENKONG 450-500mmHg。

ZHUQIWEIDIYAWEIGUOREZHENGQI,WENDUGAOYUJINSHUWENDU 50-100 DU(BUYINGDAYU 426 DU),GUOREDUBUDIYU50 DU。

LIANGCEZHUQIWENDUCHAXIAOYU 17 DU;

广西快3SHANGXIAGANGWENCHABUDAYU 50℃

广西快3GAO、ZHONGYAGANGHEGANG,ZHU、ZAIREZHENGQIWENDUCHAYIBANWEI 28 DU,DUANSHIKEYUNXUZAI 42 DU,BUDEDAYU 80DU。

RUNHUAYOUYAJIZHOUCHENGYOULIUZHENGCHANG,YOUWEN 35-45 DU。

广西快3HUANGDONGBIANHUA:  BUDAYUYUANSHIDE±0.02mm。 

4. 汽轮机冷态启动步骤

1) 冲转和摩擦检查

①DUI 300MW JIZULENGTAIQIDONGSHI,YONGZHUQIMENCHONGZHUANNUANJI,YI 100~150r/min DESHENGSULVJIANGZHUANSUSHENGZHI600r/min,PANCHEZHUANGZHIZIDONGTUICHU

②600r/min MOCAJIANCHA。QIEDUANJINQI 5min NEIKUAISUWANCHENGJIANCHA,QUERENWUJINSHUSHENGHOU,XUNSUCHONGZHUANZHI 600 ZHUAN/FEN,SHENGSULV 100~150r/min。

2)升速到中速暖机

1500 rpm(SUIJIZUBUTONGYOUBIANHUA),NUANJI。

中速暖机转速确定的原则

广西快3①BIKAILINJIEZHUANSU (YISHICEDEWEIZHUN)

②BIKAIDIYAGANGZHANGYEPIANGONGZHENPINLV

BUFENJIZUXUANYONG 1500r /min ZUOWEIZHONGSUNUANJIZHUANSU,SHANGQICHANGYINJINXING 300MW JIZU,ZHONGSUNUANJIZHUANSUXUANYONG 2000~2080r/min YUANYINSHIKAOLVBIKAIDIYAGANGZHANGYEPIANGONGZHENPINLV。

过临界时注意的问题:迅速通过,严格监视振动

JIZUGUOLINJIEZHUANSUSHIDESHENGSULVDADUOWEI 300r/min

NUANJISHIJIANXU 60~90 min,YINJINXING 300MW JIZUZHONGSUNUANJISHIJIANZHANGDA 180min

中速暖机阶段是否结束,要看高中压缸的温度水平。 

3)升至全速

ZHONGSUNUANJIJIESHU,SHENGSUDAO 3000 rpm,XIANGDIANQIFACHUXINHAO。

JIZUDADAOSHENGSUTIAOJIANHOU,JIKEJINXINGSHENGSUCAOZUO。JIZUZAI 3000r/min SHI,YIBANBUANPAINUANJISHIJIAN,ZHIANPAIJINXINGSHAOLIANGDECAOZUO,BINGJINXINGQUANMIANJIANCHA。CAOZUOHEQUANMIANJIANCHAJIESHUBINGQUERENMEIYOUWENTIHOU,JIANGJIZUBINGRUDIANWANG。 

冲转过程基本要求

SHENGSULVXIAOYU 100-150r/min;QIGANGJINSHUWENSHENGLVXIAOYU 2-2.5 DU/min

快速平稳过临界转速,严格监视振动

FANGZHIZHENDONGCHAOGUOGUIDINGZHI,ZHOUCHENGZHENDONGXIAOYU 0.03mm,JIANSHIHAOJIZUPENGZHANGJIZHANGCHAQINGKUANG。

广西快3ZHOUWENHEZHOUCHENGWAWEN、HUIYOUWENDUJIAQIANGJIANSHIQILUNJIDEREYINGLIJIANSHI,KEKONGZHIQILUNJIQIDONGDESUDUBIANHUALV,TONGSHIZHENGGEQIDONGGUOCHENGZHONGKONGZHIFUHEDEBIANHUALV。 

4) 机组带负荷暖机和并网后的操作

300MW JIZUBINGWANGHOUDIFUHENUANJIDAODAIMANFUHE,GONGFEN 15,30,60,120MW SIGEJIEDUAN。

CHUSHIFUHE 3-5%,SHANGQIYAOQIU l min NEISHIJIZUDAISHANG 15MW FUHE,FANGZHINIGONGLVBAOHUDONGZUO。

CHUSHIFUHENUANJISHIJIAN:30min。ZAICIQIJIANGUOLUYINGJINLIANGBAOCHIQIYA、QIWENWENDING。FOUZEZHUQIWENDUMEISHENGGAO1.7 DU,ZENGJIANUANJISHIJIAN 1 FENZHONG。

广西快3NINGJIESHUIHUISHOU,NINGJIESHUIFANGSHUIMENGUAN,ZHICHUYANGQIMENKAI。

广西快3ZHUYIJIANCHAQIGANGSHANGXIAWENCHA、ZHUANZIZHENDONG、GANGZHANG、ZHANGCHA、ZHOUXIANGWEIYI、ZHOUCHENGYOUYAYOUWENSHIFOUZHENGCHANG。 

5) 超速试验和 FATT

广西快3FUHEJIAZHI 30MW,NUANJI 4 XIAOSHIHOUCHAOSUSHIYAN;

广西快330CrMoV DE FATT YUEWEI 100℃,YUNXINGYIDUANSHIJIANHOUSHIJIAN,FATT BIANGAO。

6) 重新并网带负荷,直至额定负荷

升负荷中注意事项:

① 15%FUHE,TINGPAIQIGANGPENSHUIJIANWEN;

②FUHE 60-80%,TOUGAOJIAHUOSUIJIZUQIDONGTOUGAOJIA;

③SHENGFUHESULV,ZHU、ZAIREQIWENSHENGLVBUDEDAYUGUIDINGZHI(CANKAOGUICHENGHUOQIDONGQUXIAN)。 

汽轮机启动、停运过程中的参数控制原则

ZHENGQIWENSHENGLV→ZHENGQIJINSHUJIANWENCHA→JINSHUWENSHENGLV→JINSHUWENCHA→REYINGLI、REPENGZHANG、REBIANXING

蒸汽温升率:主蒸汽 1-1.5/min,再热蒸汽 2-2.5/min

金属温升率:不大于 1.5/min

三、热态启动

LENGRETAIDEFENJIEWENDUWEI 150℃,QIGANGDACIWENDUSHI,GAOZHONGYAZHUANZIDEZHONGXINKONGWENDUYITONGGUOCAILIAOCUIXINGZHUANBIANWENDU,GEBUFENJINSHUWENDUJIPENGZHANGYIDADAOHUOCHAOGUOKONGFUHEQUANSUSHIDESHUIPING。

广西快3YUANZESHANGZAICIWENDUQIDONG,CHONGZHUANHOUKEBUBINUANJI,ZHIYAOJIANCHAGONGZUOHECAOZUONENGGENSHANG,JIUKEZHIJIESHENGDAO 3000 r/min 。DANBUTONGJIZUQIDONGXINGNENGCHABIE,QILENGRETAIFENJIEWENDUDEGUIDINGGEZHIZAOCHANGBUJINXIANGTONG。

经验说明:对于某些国产机组 高中压内缸内下壁温度即使达 200℃,都不能不经暖机直接升到3000 r/min 。更多机组经验表明:冷态启动高中压内缸内下壁温度大于等于 250 是升到全速的条件。

广西快3YINCIJIZURETAIQIDONGJIEXIANJIAOGAO,YOUXIEJIZUYIGANGWEN 400 ℃WEIZHUN。 

脆性转变温度 FATT:在不同温度下,对金属材料进行冲击试验,脆性断口占试验断口 50%的温度。

CAILIAOGONGZUOZAI FATT WENDUYIXIA,CHONGJIRENXINGXIANZHUXIAJIANG,RONGYIFASHENGCUIXINGPOHUAI。

 CrMoV HEJINGANGDE FATT WEI 80~130 ℃

1. 热态启动注意问题

1)控制启动前汽缸上下温差不超出允许范围:广西快3防止间隙变化,造成动静摩擦。

2)热态启动时投用高温轴封汽,轴封供汽温度应和汽缸温度相匹配,且必须充分暖管,以防止转子轴封段受热冲击和高中压负差胀的增大。

3)送轴封汽前先投盘车。

4)严格控制大轴弯曲值和盘车的使用。

RETAIQIDONGYAOTEBIEZHUYIDAZHOUWANQU(HUANGDONGDU)BUNENGYUEGUOGUIDINGZHI;

广西快3ZAIPANCHEZHUANGTAIZIXITINGSHENGYIN,JIANCHAZHOUFENGHEJIZUNEIYOUMEIYOUMOCAXIANXIANG,RUOFAXIANDONGJINGMOCABUNENGQIDONGJIZU,DONGJINGMOCAYANZHONGSHI,HAIYINGTINGZHILIANXUPANCHEGAIYONGSHOUDONGPANCHE。

DAZHOUHUANGDUZENGDAQIEYOUJINSHUMOCASHENGSHI,CAIYONGSHOUDONGPANCHE,MUDE:DIAOZHIDAZHOU。

5) 热态启动的冲转参数

YAOQIUZHUZHENGQIWENDUHEZAIREZHENGQIWENDUYAOGAOYUQIGANGJINSHUWENDU 50~100℃,QIEZHENGQIGUOREDUBUSHAOYU56℃。QIDONGSHI,BIXUXUANZEYUGAOZHONGYAGANGJINSHUWENDUXIANGPIPEIDEZHUZHENGQIWENDUHEZAIREZHENGQIWENDU。

广西快3RUGUOCHONGZHUANCANSHUBIQIGANGJINSHUWENDUDI,JIANGZAIQIGANGNEIBIAOMIANHEZHUANZIWAIBIAOMIANCHANSHENGLAYINGLI,GUODA DELAYINGLIRONGYIYINQILIEWEN。

广西快3DIAOJIEJIHOUDEZHENGQIWENDUBIZHUZHENGQIWENYAODI 50~100℃,TONGYANG,JINRUZHONGYAGANGDEZAIREZHENGQIDAODADIYIJICHUKOUSHIWENDUYEYOUSUOJIANGDI。

6)严格监测振动:特别是中速之下,振动超限立即打闸,并投入连续盘车

2. 热态启动操作注意问题

1) 热态启动时,应先送轴封汽然后再抽真空,因为热态启动凝汽器抽真空时,如果轴封尚未供汽,转子轴封处会受到强烈的冷却。高中压汽缸轴封送汽温度必须与金属温度匹配,热态启动时轴封是最易受到热冲击的部位。在向轴封送汽前,对系统要进行充分暖管。轴封送汽前先投盘车。(热态启动操作与冷态启动操作的重要区别之一)

2)冷油器出口温度不低于 38 度

3)热态启动真空应该高些

4)热态启动时,严格控制振动

5) 热态启动时胀差的控制热态启动更容易遇到升速时发生异常振动的情况。广西快3振幅超过允许值,应停机测量大轴弯曲,排除大轴弯曲的可能;当振动异常而未超标时,可暂停升速寻找原因,如无好转,仍需停机处理。

广西快3QIDONGSHIGENJUZHIZAOCHANGTIGONGDERETAIQIDONGQUXIANHESHOUMINGSUNHAOQUXIAN,QUEDINGSHENGSULV、DAIFUHESUDU、NUANJISHIJIAN 。QIDONGSHIJIANCEREYINGLI,GUANJIANSHIBURANGRETAIDEZHUANZIHEQIGANGSHOUDAOLENGQUE。

汽轮机的停运

一、 分类

①HUACANSHUTINGJI

②EDINGCANSHUTINGJI:DUOWEISHIGUTINGJI,XIANDAZHAZAIQIEDUANJINQI,YIKONGQILENGQUEJI,HUIZAOCHENGWEIHAI。

停机过程是汽轮机冷却过程,产生的是拉应力和负胀差,故更容易出现事故。

二、 停机步骤 

广西快3ZHUNBEIGONGZUO →JIANFUHE → DAZHA → FADIANJIJIELIE → ZHUANZIDUOZOU → TOUPANCHE

1.减负荷

广西快3①KAIJI 3℃/min,TINGJIGANGBIWENXIAJIANGSULV 1.5℃/min;

广西快3②ZHENGQIWENDUDIYUJINSHUWENDU20~35℃,KAIJISHIGAOYUJINSHUWENDU50~100℃;

③TOURUBEIYONGQIFENGQIYUAN,FANGZHIGAOYAZHOUFENGCHUXIANJUBUFUZHANGCHA。

2.打闸和拉闸

①DAZHA:XIEYOUYA,QIMENBUDONGZUO

广西快3②LAZHA:YOUDONGJIDONGZUO,GUAYOUYA,QIMENDONGZUO

3.发电机解列

广西快3ZHUYIQUERENZIDONGZHUQIMENWUKASE。

4.转子惰走

广西快3①BIAOZHUNDUOZOUSHIJIAN:FADIANJIJIELIEHOU,CONGZIDONGZHUQIMENHEDIAOJIEQIMENGUANBISHIQI,DAOZHUANZIJINGZHIDEYIDUANSHIJIAN。

②BIAOZHUNDUOZOUQUXIAN:XINJIZUTOUYUNYIDUANSHIJIANHOU,ZHENGCHANGHOU,KEZAITINGJISHISUOCEHUIDE n-t QU XIAN。

广西快3③JILUZHUANZIDUOZOUSHIJIANDEYIYI:MEICITINGJIDOUYAOJILUZHUANZIDUOZOUSHIJIAN,YUBIAOZHUNDUOZOUSHIJIANBIDUI,KEYIFANYINGCHUSHEBEIDEQUEXIAN。

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